20th century Chinese instrumental music art
Wrote on 10 October, 2007
At San Huan Hospital, East-south of Beijing
In the thousands of years of Chinese Music history, 20th century has the extremely special status and the significance.
During more than hundred years, complied with the Chinese society, the economical, the cultural comprehensive reforming historical trend about several generation of musicians seeks, is industrious at the creation, careful and also the wisdom processes the center which a front surface came – west, ancient – now, elegant – has been vulgar and so on the multiple relations, goal like place devotes to from the tradition to modern switching over, finally was 20th century Chinese music cultural establishments has achieved two splendid annals great accomplishments. First, comprehensively systematically the record reorganized the survival to various national various areas richly colorful tradition music inheritance, its public publication, causes it to become the China national culture the precious book. Second, take the Chinese tradition music resources as the basis, the widespread absorption, profits from the western specialized music the idea, the technique, creates one kind to be different with the traditional music literature style, the style brand-new music, like song, chorus, opera, ballet, instrumental music solo, symphony, concerto, national orchestral music and so on, thus caused 20thcentury China music structure to have the overall situation transformation. These two achievements, former is makes take the music scientist as the main body, latter is completes together by the composer and the performing artist. In the Chinese music history, they are extremely unprecedented.
Chinese instrumental music art 1s well-established and the accumulation is rich. In the antiquity literature so-called “strikes Shi Fushi”, “the drum Qin drum Chinese zither”, “the drum meets”, “Jin Shengyu inspires” the description as well as “the primary tooth falls the qin” the fable to be allowed to regard as is it splendid “the introduction”. But Chinese Wei time “Qin Bestows on” (Ji Kang), “QinHolds” (the Cai Nanning), “Flute Bestows on” (horse to melt), “Pipa Bestows on”, “Zheng Bestows on”, “Bestows on” (teacher to be unreliable)”Sheng To bestow on” (Pan Anren), “Vertical bamboo flute Bestows on” (prince deep pool) Zhu Wen theory, then had reflected each kind of musical instrument unique performance strength and at that time the artistic achievement which achieved at the performance. Hereafter, performance technique and so on the Tang Dynasty jie drum, seven string qin, pipa, zheng is highly mature. Song Yuanyi falls, on the one hand because the traditional entertainment involving talking and singing, the drama gradually formed promoted the musical instrument accompaniment specialization, on the other hand, the folk sacrificial offering, the holiday, the ritual vulgar activity urgent needed happy to cause the gong music, the string and woodwind instruments, to promote happy, the string is happy and so on the different orchestra to combine enlivens to the general folk societies. In long reaches the millennium the performance to practice, regardless of is minority is long to the solo musical instrument, like qin, pipa and soon, or each kind of small instrumental ensemble orchestra, not only accumulated the massive outstanding programs, moreover, in musical instrument performance technique expansion, enhancement, standard aspect, also all from becomes the system, consummates day by day, causes the instrumental music art to become all previous dynasties music indispensable constituent.
Although so, we or must point out, 20th century before Chinese instrumental music art certainly was not a completely independent performing arts class. If all previous dynasties palace orchestra, although musical instrument prepared, the scale 1s huge, but they mainly are serve for the palace etiquette, any uses happy, all must receive the etiquette system the restriction, but cannot freely and fully displays the orchestra own performance. They save with the palace etiquette rely on one another, we may call it “the palace ritual music” instrumental music art. Also like each kind of promotion, blows bugle and beats drums the orchestra, they all nearly are in the folk holiday, the celebration, the weddings and funerals, the ceremony believe in the activity to play, has with the folk custom culture paragenesis nature. Therefore, has the very big dependence regarding the folk custom phenomenon. This should be one kind “the folk custom” instrumental music art. Moreover for the traditional entertainment involving talking and singing, the drama, the dance accompaniment folk orchestra, they merely is the traditional entertainment involving talking and singing, the drama and so on at his kind of comprehensive nature performing arts constituent. Its performance strength utilization, the display, is decided by this synthesis art itself need, but is impossible alone freely to perform. This may say is China -like “theater instrumental music art”. Instrumental ensemble art so, solo art? In the literature records many is the qin, the Xiao, the pipa, the zheng and so on. But they “the performance” the place, the majority is the official mansion, the brothel teahouse or the writer private room, its goal mainly is watches for the minority person or “by the happy society member”, the folk calls it “Ya Album”. In this kind of situation, the performer and audience’s relations are desalinated, but emphasizes is scene participant “the self-entertainment”, “from enjoys”. This is one kind “Ya Album” instrumental music art. [ Note 1 | in brief, counts the millennium the performance practice and art accumulates, causes the Chinese instrumental music art the resources incomparably to be rich. But it own special growth environment, namely with palace etiquette, folk custom phenomenon, drama acrobatics performance, writer interest long-term “paragenesis” and to their excessively dependence, congenitally causes this art to lack to the special technique, the esthetic trend sedulously pursue, thus also caused it to lack an achievement special domain some kind of independence.
After entering into 20th century, the feudalism thorough conclusion, 54New Culture Movement occurrence and the brand-new academic picture which appears as a result of the China and the West culture wide-ranging exchange, not only creates the Chinese politics, the economical century transition, moreover, also has expedited the new-vernacular literature, the new music, new artistic being born. Includes the instrumental music performing arts.
In 1915, Mr. Liu Tianhua created and plays his maiden work – “To get sick Recites”, at the same time it also was 20th century musicians in under the western specialized music creative idea influence, has the modern spirit first Erhu solosium. In 1919, Mr. Zheng Jinwen established “the Datong Lohwei” in Shanghai, afterwards set up in 1924including has played the ball various kind of traditions musical instrument, reaches 40 performers’ large-scale orchestras. This Lohwei’s objective is: “Specially practices regarding Western music host, searches into ancient matters regarding the center happy host with the transformation, is sure to hit the west to aid profit the cooperation, then the sincere its essence, proposes its guiding principle, opens a new era for the world music, by this meets goals of the Datong two characters.” [ Note 2 ] the Liu Tianhua Erhu creation sets up the new orchestra with the Datong Lohwei the attempt, officially has pulled open 20th century China musical instrument soloart and the instrumental ensemble art prologue, not only watershed, moreover has had the extremely profound influence. Under from now on during more than 80 years the later, Chinese instrumental music art will work with concerted efforts in the composer and national musical instrument performer, the reform will innovate, the repeated test, a group vanguard, gradually pushed this art to an unprecedented mountain peak.
20th century Chinese instrumental music art, therefore can become to be relatively independent quite has the achievement the modern performing arts category, obtains benefits to the below various factors.
First, the music colleges and universities bring into line with the national musical instrument the specialized ranks, is 20th century China instrumental music becomes the independent artistic performance class the first sign. Time it is well known, Shanghai “the state-run music courtyard” had been established from 1927, the pipa, Erhu, the guqin become this school a specialty. Although only has 23 musical instruments to enjoy this great honor, but it has established one kind of principle for the afterwards music colleges and universities. Therefore, 1950 ages each place conservatory had been established time, not only increased very many musical instruments, moreover has established “the national instrumental music department”, this becomes a specialty for more musical instruments, and played the talented person for the raise large quantities of special instrumental music to provide the most powerful safeguard. Near for several dozens year overwhelming majorities outstanding nationality instrumental music performer, nearly all stems from the specialized music colleges and universities. Essentially says, follows the number millennium by the school edition substitution to come the family or the society “the nature inheritance” the way, is 20th century China instrumental music art steps to the high specialization is important step.
Second, the performance situation and the performance function change, is 20th century China instrumental music becomes the independent artistic class an essential factor. As aforesaid, former instrumental music performance, mostly depends on to the folk custom phenomenon or some kind of comprehensive art, its function also has “the self-entertainment” the nature. But got up from 1920 ages, receives the western specialized performance way and the idea influence, the national instrumental music performance also alone mount the concert stage. Has later been more common this kind of situation to 1950 ages, moreover becomes the Chinese instrumental music art demonstration the fundamental mode. Instrumental music art performs the stage, finally causes it to be separated from to the folk custom phenomenon, the synthesis art dependence but is completely independent, becomes “the concert” the instrumental music art. Regarding comprehensively enhances each kind of musical instrument the performance technique, the realization instrumental music art esthetic pursues, this kind “the concert” condition, and then becomes the ideal performance space.
Third, the folk art master enters the music colleges and universities, for trained new generation of performer to play the key role.
1950 ages, in the nationwide theatrical festival, emerged one batch to may be called instrumental music performer many times and so on master’s flute, tube, Sheng, zheng, guqin, suona, board Hu, pipa, they afterwards one after another welcome were engaged in to the music colleges and universities or the specialized association the teaching and the performance. Because they have on one’s person the unique skill, the traditional foundation of basic skills is deep, after the teaching post, has played the huge role in the teaching. The people play called they are “as soon as pass on the hand”, because they directly take into the traditional art the modern education domain; Called they the student is “the passer”, because they already study from the folk master, also is the series study specialized music theory, becomes from the tradition to the modern education link. After that, they have trained one group of each kind of musical instrument young performer one after another. Thereupon, forms performer the troop by the folk instrumental music master and their generation of generation of student, becomes 20th century instrumental music art the nucleus.
Fourth, the traditional music classics, the folk outstanding program reorganization reorganization and composer’s creation program, has directly presented the 20th century instrumental music art graceful bearing. The bountiful work, 1s constitutes an independent artistic domain the basic foundation. 20th century China instrumental music art program, the main origin to three aspects, one is has been through repeatedly the tempering which in 1100 played practices to recognize for is the classical many masterpieces. Two is the process reorganizes, the reorganization, processing large quantities of folk musics. After three is the composer involves the Chinese instrumental music creation newly to do. Three kinds of works respectively have own value. The first two kinds already were the recognition traditional culture inheritances, but beyond broadcasts throughout the ages. Latter is impels the Chinese instrumental music art unceasingly to among them front, the expansion in the performance strength, to promote its modern esthetic value, to let it forever be full of the creation energy the key. For dozens of years, enlivened to the Chinese instrumental music creation domain composer not only have composed the massive solos work for many musical instruments, also completed the many kinds of literature styles, the different scale for the nationality orchestra have newly done, have maturely contributed an own strength for this art.
Fifth, sets up the large-scale nationality orchestra, for fully demonstrated Chinese instrumental music instrumental ensemble art the unique charm carries on the long-term test. “Datong Lohwei” the new orchestra although the time is not long, the achievement is limited, but it has opened the atmosphere first. 1950 ages, this kind blew, hits, pulls, the ball prepared new nationality orchestra successively in places such as Beijing, Shanghai one after another establishes. After 1970 ages, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore have also established the more or less the same nationality orchestra. For dozens of years, the nationality orchestra after performer, compere, composer’s practice and diligently, the work, the literature style day by day increases, the performance strength is day by day rich, the performance technique comprehensive enhancement, already became the modern China instrumental ensemble art one kind of model, also was one of entire universally accepted influential national orchestras.
In brief, specialized music colleges and universities constructing is increasing, the performance stage, the outstanding performance talented person, the rich performance program, the specialized composer’s depth participation, finally has completed from the traditional instrumental music art to contemporary instrumental music art reforming, causes the instrumental music art to become 20th century China music a bright chapter, it also is 20th century musicians responds the time the request to use a generous gift which own innovation spirit offers!
Since 1990 ages, the dragon sound company continuously has devoted to the Chinese instrumental music sound literature publication, manufactures one batch to have the value, high grade, the extremely fine acoustic special edition, not only obtains in the national instrumental music good comments, moreover, also praises for the general instrumental music amateur. This, they by “the book reservation” the way, the collection guqin, Erhu, the pipa, the zheng, the flute and other stringed musical instruments (board Hu,center Hu, Gao Hu, fall qin, jinghu, greatly strike, horse’s headqin), the wind instrument (Sheng, tube, Xiao, suona, batardeau, mouthflute), the plectrum musical instrument (samisen, Yang Qin, Ruan, yukin, willow qin, harp) as well as the instrumental ensemble, the association play to a department, gathers the tradition classical, the old tune reorganization, the present age newly does to a volume, the famous expert oligomerization, the literature style diversely, the program 1s rich, the school numerously assumes, The centralism but comprehensively has reflected 20th century China instrumental music art overall appearance. The editor gazes to this artistic class stares at high far, the hope is earnest, the treasure loves the depth sincere, all melts the note to each volume, each tune, each as soon as installs the decoration and the design. Therefore, listens to 1tto enjoy it, reads it to read it, we not only can be 20th century Chinese instrumental music art obtain highly the achievement to shock, moreover, also can be moved by this series editor’s cultural aware spirit!
Has the feeling to this, the author ventures to, take “20th century Chinese instrumental music art” as the topic, the power also acts as the preface, does not work as place, respectfully requests fellow FangJiazheng it.
[ Note 1 ] about “folk custom”, “Ya Album”, “theater” the theory, please refer to the Huang Xiang huge mythical bird: “Discussed China Ancient times Music Inheritance Relations” an article, saw “Tradition Is a River”, people’s music publishing house 1,992
[ Note 2 ] Zheng Jinwen: “Datong Lohwei New Organization”