打擊樂(皮膜類) Percussion (Leather Group)
打擊樂(金屬類) Percussion (Metal Group)
打擊樂(竹木類) Percussion (Bamboo-Wood Group)
打擊樂(皮膜類) Percussion(Leather Group)
Drum, leather face percussion instrument played with a mallet. The origin is very early. Drums are one of the indispensable accompaniment instruments in singing and dancing, opera and other artistic activities, and sometimes also play the role of conductor; they also occupy a very important position in some instrumental ensembles and develop into solo instruments. There are many kinds of drums circulating today . Characteristic, playing methods are not the same, all have rich expressive power.
Big drum, barrel-shaped, slightly thick in the middle. The drum frame is generally made of different kinds of wood. Two to four round or hexagonal bubbling parts are arranged in the middle, and drum rings are installed on them to hang or serve as handles. Both sides of the drum are covered with cowhide. When playing, it is put on a wooden frame and use two thick wooden chutes to strike the sound. Generally speaking, the heart of the drum is low, and the edge of the drum is high. There are many kinds of playing methods. It can be played solo or in ensemble, dance accompaniment, traditional festivals.
Tanggu, also known as the Tonggu, is the same in shape, production, material and playing method as the big drum. The size of the drum is divided into sizes, and the small drum has a high-pitched sound, which is used in local opera, folk dance accompaniment and gong and drum teams; When playing, you can get a large volume and tone contrast by hitting the drum rim, drum heart and controlling the hitting intensity, rendering different moods and atmospheres
Paigu is a new type of drum created in the 1960s. It generally consists of five drums of different sizes, ranging from bass to treble. The two sides of each drum have the same size on the outside, but different inner diameters, so each drum can emit two different tones through the external tuning device. , the amplitude can reach four or five degrees, so five drums have ten tones. The drum body is fixed on a special iron “U”-shaped fork frame, with a casing column in the middle, which is mounted on a supporting tripod, and both sides of the drum body can be turned over and played at will. The sound of the row drum is intense and swaying, the treble is firm and powerful, and the middle and bass are generous and bright.
Bangu, also known as bangu or single-skin, is short and small. The drum frame is made of five thick colored wood, birch, locust wood or mulberry wood. -10 cm, the drum body has a wide opening at the end, and the entire drum frame is tightly covered with thick pigskin or cowhide. It is wrapped directly to the bottom of the drum body, and is tightened with drum nails. . To play, hang the drum in the air on a bamboo or wooden drum stand tied to a rope and strike it with two drum sticks. There are two types of bangu, the louder and lower pitched drums, the southern part of China use the big drums, while the Peking Opera and other local operas use the small drums. In general opera ensembles, the bangu and the clapboard are used together, and one person plays concurrently, taking the position of conductor and lead.
Tambourine, wooden frame, oblate, covered with sheepskin, horseskin or donkey skin on one side, and tightened with iron nails around the leather surface. The drum frame has small oblate long holes. The device has 5-7 For small cymbals made of copper or iron, there is another round hole without cymbals as the grip part. When playing, hold the drum with the left hand, and play with the fingers or palm of the right hand, and shake the drum body to make the small cymbals sound at the same time. Mostly used for singing or dancing accompaniment, but also for instrumental ensemble.
打擊樂(金屬類) Percussion(Metal Group)
鑼，銅製，圓形弧面，中央有隆起的鑼光或鑼臍，用布或皮條包頭的鑼棰敲擊。唐杜佑《通典》，已提及“打沙鑼”的記載，約於後魏（公元六世紀）前期開始出現。長期以來，經過不斷發展，已創製出多種多樣的鑼類，亦有將不同音高的小鑼編整成套，適於演奏旋律的 “雲鑼” 及大小不同音色鑼群，組合成的“十面鑼”和“舟山鑼”。在器樂合奏，尤其鑼鼓曲中，都需要用到鑼。不同種類的戲曲伴奏中，所用鑼類都有一定的規定。當今所用的鑼類有：大鑼（虎音鑼）、小鑼（手鑼）、湯鑼、鋩鑼、雲鑼、十面鑼、大抄鑼、深波、風鑼……等等。
Gongs, made of bronze, with a circular arc surface, played with a mallet covered by cloth or leather strap. For a long time, through continuous development, a variety of gongs have been created. There are also small gongs with different pitches arranged in sets, suitable for playing melody “cloud gongs” and gong groups of different sizes and timbres. In instrumental ensembles, especially in gongs and drums, gongs are needed. There are certain regulations for the gongs used in different types of opera accompaniment. There are many types of gongs used today.
Nao and Bo are made of copper, in the shape of a disc, with a raised bowl top, two pieces in each pair, and each hand holds one piece for each other when playing. This kind of musical instrument, firstly appeared around 350 AD. After the Ming and Qing dynasties, Nao and Bo coexisted at the same time, each with a variety of sizes, and the names were not uniform. Although the shape of Nao and Bo are basically similar, there are also different in size, sound and usage.
Pengling, which are normally made of copper. This instrument has been around in the Southern and Northern Dynasties (AD 420-589). The bell is made up of two hemispherical bronze bells with a raised bowl top connected by a rope. When playing, hold a rope end in each hand and hit the bell mouth with each other to mak a sound. It is commonly used in instrumental ensembles, singing and dancing, and opera accompaniment. It is mostly used for strong beats and response nodes of music. There is no fixed pitch, but the pronunciation is crisp and pleasant, with special charm and color.
Yinqing, also known as cloud chime, consists of a hemispherical brass bell placed on the upper end of an oblong seedling handle. When playing, the left hand holds the lower end of the wooden handle, and the right hand holds the slender copper rod to strike. The chime has a soft and pleasant sound. It is beautiful in small ensembles of national instrumental music, and it is an indispensable member in Buddhist and Taoist temple music.
打擊樂(竹木類) Percussion(Bamboo-Wood Group)
Clapboard is a set of percussion instruments composed of several wooden blocks. It has developed to modern times and is often used in opera music and instrumental ensembles. It consists of three boards, often used in conjunction with the Bangu. The three wooden boards are composed of cover, middle and bottom. The plates are matched, and the upper and lower ends are wound with silk strings to form one group. It is about two-thirds upward with the single bottom plate of the other group. It can be made wider and tighter by twisting; when playing, hold the bottom plate with the left hand, place the thumb on the rope twist in the middle of the two groups, and shake the wrist so that the lower part of the ridge of the bottom plate and the lower part of the middle plate of the other group hit each other to get the sound.
Bangzi, wood percussion instrument, also known as ban board, is composed of two hardwood paired together, one is a cylindrical strip, the other is a rectangular oblate. They are mostly made of red sandalwood, mahogany or jujube wood. When playing, the left hand holds the rectangle, and the right hand holds the cylinder to strike the rectangle to obtain the sound. In southern China, there is another rectangular flat wooden percussion instrument called Nanbangzi, also known as Buyu and Cantonese board. The finished product is a rectangular rosewood bottom facing each other, and each of the two thin surfaces is dug into a long and deep narrow slit that is not at the bottom to make a resonance cavity. When performing, the left hand holds a wooden bang, and the right hand holds a bamboo or wooden stick to strike the opening, or hang it on a drum stand to play. The sound is short and mellow.
Lianhuaban, a bamboo percussion instrument, is composed of 2 sets of bamboo board which can be used together or separately. One set is made of two relatively large and thick tile-shaped bamboos without bamboo joints and without cracking insects. There are two horizontal holes at the upper end, and the positive side is connected with a rope. Together, one-handed strike and take the board shot. Another set is composed of five or seven small bamboo boards. The upper end is opened with two horizontal holes and connected with ropes. Copper coins or copper sheets are sandwiched between the boards, and the lower end is free to open and close. When playing, hold the first set in one hand and another set in the other, and strike or shake the sound.
Muyu (Wooden fish), wooden percussion instrument, was originally a common musical instrument for Buddhism activities, and was gradually absorbed and used by folk instrumental ensembles. It has been popular among the people since the Qing Dynasty. It is in the shape of a fish, with an opening in the middle of the head, hollowed out for resonance, and the tail is coiled. Viewed from the side, it is a triangle with a big head and a thin tail, and it is struck with a wooden shovel to pick up the sound. Wooden fish vary in size and pitch. In ethnic bands, a complete set of wooden fish is selected according to seven or twelve tones.